Mata kuliah Introduction to Linguistic minggu ke-4 ini memberikan inisiasi mengenai fonetik, fonologi dan fonem. Untuk materi lengkap mengenai inisiasi ini silakan baca buku materi pokok Introduction to Linguistic, modul 3 mengenai topik Phonetics and Phonology seperti di uraikan dibawah ini:
We come to the Online Tutorial of Introduction to Linguistics/PBIS4202 for session 4. In this session we are going to discuss material from Module 3, about Phonetics and Phonology, focusing on phonemes. Both phonetics and phonology can be generally described as the study of speech sounds. Before we go on, we need to know about Phonetics and Phonology. Phonetics is concerned with the sounds we make in speech: how we produce them, how these sounds are transferred from the speaker to the hearer as sound waves, and how we hear and perceive them. Phonology is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language.
What is a phoneme?
- Trask (1996 : 264) says:
phoneme (??????) n.’the smallest unit which can make a difference in meaning’….
- Hayman (1975: 59) defines the phoneme as ‘a minimal unit of sound capable of distinguishing words of different meanings. Thus, both /t/ and /d/ are phonemes in English because they are able to make a meaning difference, as in the word ‘ten’ and ‘den’.
- Gleason (1955: 261) defines the phoneme as “a class of sounds which: (1) are phonetically similar and (2) show certain characteristic patterns of distribution in the language or dialect under consideration”.
An essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively. We know that there are two phonemes /f/ and /v/ in English because they are the only basis of the contrast in meaning between the forms fat and vat, or fine and vine. This contrastive property is the basic operational test for determining the phonemes which exist in a language.
If we substitute one sound for another in a word and there is a change of meaning, then the two sounds represent different phonemes. For example: /p/ can be characterized as [-voice, +bilabial, +stop] and /k/ as [-voice, +velar, +stop]. Since these two sounds share some features, they are sometimes described as members of a natural class of sounds.
The predic¬tion would be that sounds which have features in common would behave phonologically in some similar ways. A sound which does not share those features would be expected to behave differently. For example, /v/ has the features [+voice, +labiodental, +fricative] and so cannot be in the same ‘natural class’ as /p/ and /k/.
Although other factors will be involved, this feature-analysis could lead us to suspect that there may be a good phonological reason why words beginning with /pl-/ and /kl-/ are common in English, but words beginning /vl-/ are not.
Each word consists of phonemes. The word scream has 5 phonemes [????l?]. Now, can you try to count the phonemes of some words given to you? It is a challenge for you. In order to understand better about phonemes, it is better for you to read the materials of module 3 and do the assignment 2 which is attached in this session.
File untuk catatan inisiasi ke-4 ini dapat diambil di sini.